By Cristofano dell'Altissimo —, Public Domain,

For centuries the Catholic Church and more specifically the papacy were at the center of power in the Christian world. An example of this was the Holy Roman Empire, the purpose of which was as a promoter, defender and often enforcer of Christianity.

Throughout the Middle Ages and until the…

Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger — Public Domain,

“King Henry VIII, to six wives he was wedded. One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded”.

Known as “the father of the Royal Navy” for building its fleet to more than 50 ships, Henry VIII was a bold and self-assured monarch of England. …

Source: pxfuel royalty free photos

Changing Attitudes About Universal Healthcare Coverage

The Covid-19 pandemic is changing cultural, social, political and economic boundaries on a global scale. Past arguments in opposition to a government managed healthcare approach are becoming less relevant as we see large numbers of infected patients experiencing hospital stays lasting weeks.

We see many vulnerable populations being the ones…

By J.C. Scull from Unsplash

Gender Communication

Women are great communicators, or so it seems. Men are emotional clams; many women make this claim. But perhaps both sexes are being painted with broad strokes.

Could it be members of both sexes are equally effective communicators, but in different areas of daily life and in different ways? …

By J.C. Scull


Developmental psychologist Howard Gardner’s 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences separates human intelligence into different abilities rather than a single general aptness as it was previously believed. He originally identified eight intelligences which will be detailed in this article.

The theory of multiple intelligences is valuable…

Public Domain,

The Colossus of the Nineteenth Century

Not since Joan of Arc has there been a greater champion of French cultural nationalism than Napoleon Bonaparte. He accomplished this by justifying French expansionism and military campaigns through the ideals of “liberty, equality and fraternity” which the French Revolution espoused. He rationalized his actions by claiming France had the…

Photo by J. C. Scull

Millions of years ago, in a parallel universe in which our laws of physics do not apply, a wonderful occurrence took place. …


In literature as in movies, monsters represent our fears of the unknown. They constitute those aspects in our societies we see as uncontrollable and menacing. They have been with us since ancient Greek, Chinese, and Egyptian civilizations. …

Free to use with attribution Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

She has captivated our imagination for centuries. And is said to have been a beautiful and mysterious seductress that put political and military titans Julius Caesar and Mark Antony under her spell. …

By J.C. Scull

The Glass Ceiling

In 1978, little known Marilyn Loden, a mid-level manager at New York Telephone Co., was asked to attend the Women’s Exposition in New York City after the company’s only female vice president couldn’t make it. …

J.C. Scull

I write about culture, international trade, and history. Taught international business at two universities in Beijing, China.

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