Over the centuries the Catholic Church became increasingly powerful. In some cases it led to greed, corruption and abuses.

For centuries the Catholic Church and more specifically the papacy were at the center of power in the Christian world. An example of this was the Holy Roman Empire, the purpose of which was as a promoter, defender and often enforcer of Christianity.

Throughout the Middle Ages and until the…

He presided over the English Renaissance in the early 1500s. He was ebullent in his manners, militarily daring and an adventurist in love as well as marriage.

“King Henry VIII, to six wives he was wedded. One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded”.

Known as “the father of the Royal Navy” for building its fleet to more than 50 ships, Henry VIII was a bold and self-assured monarch of England. …

In the age of Covid-19, shouldn’t our health care be something other than the archaic and outdated system we currently have?

Changing Attitudes About Universal Healthcare Coverage

The Covid-19 pandemic is changing cultural, social, political and economic boundaries on a global scale. Past arguments in opposition to a government managed healthcare approach are becoming less relevant as we see large numbers of infected patients experiencing hospital stays lasting weeks.

We see many vulnerable populations being the ones…

A woman meets a female friend at the tennis club and asks: “Hey Alice, does your husband talk to you often?” Alice responds: “Oh yes. When he gets home from work, he always asks me what’s for dinner.”

Gender Communication

Women are great communicators, or so it seems. Men are emotional clams; many women make this claim. But perhaps both sexes are being painted with broad strokes.

Could it be members of both sexes are equally effective communicators, but in different areas of daily life and in different ways? …

Understanding the way we acquire knowledge


Developmental psychologist Howard Gardner’s 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences separates human intelligence into different abilities rather than a single general aptness as it was previously believed. He originally identified eight intelligences which will be detailed in this article.

The theory of multiple intelligences is valuable…

His influence expanded all throughout Europe. Some say perhaps the entire world

The Colossus of the Nineteenth Century

Not since Joan of Arc has there been a greater champion of French cultural nationalism than Napoleon Bonaparte. He accomplished this by justifying French expansionism and military campaigns through the ideals of “liberty, equality and fraternity” which the French Revolution espoused. He rationalized his actions by claiming France had the…

J.C. Scull

I write about culture, international trade, and history. Taught international business at two universities in Beijing, China. https://hubpages.com/@jcscull

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